American History

Northwest Colonial Festival — Heritage Grains under the Big Top

The Northwest’s Olympic Peninsula is famous for hosting continental America’s only rain forest which averages about 150 inches of annual precipitation. That fact might make ocean-side grain culture there a hopeless prospect, but far from it on the dry and sunny north side of the Olympic Mountains. To the contrary, the imposing mountains shelter the vicinity of Sequim, Washington, from the region’s prevailing southwesterly winds to create a rain shadow effect causing only about fifteen inches of rain to fall in that area. The peculiar semi-arid climate combined with fertile landscape create ideal conditions for raising wheat, barley, and oats. Match the geography with the patriotic dream of Dan and Jan Abbot to build a full-scale replica of Mt. Vernon as a five star bed and breakfast and you get… the spectacular George Washington Inn.

Barley Field near Sequim on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula (2018)

Barley Field near Sequim on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula (2018)

The Abbots have been friends of Palouse Heritage since we first met several years ago at one of the WSU Grain Gathering conferences. Dan shares our interest in health and history and wanted to learn about the crops of America’s Colonial Era in order to provide a “living history” experience to visitors to the Inn. He might not have expected them to harvest the crop, but thought that establishing test plots with actual varieties that once grew at places like Mt. Vernon and Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello would be a fascinating project. And so was launched a partnership between Dan, the WSU Bread Lab in nearby Burlington, and Palouse Heritage.

British Army Reenactors approach the George Washington Inn (Mt. Vernon)

British Army Reenactors approach the George Washington Inn (Mt. Vernon)

The third annual Northwest Colonial Festival was held at the Inn this past August with hundreds of visitors attending a series of special events and reenactor encampments of British regulars and American patriots. Along with demonstrations of tool making, cooking, printing, weaving, and other traditional crafts, the August sunshine brought the landrace grain plots to maturity. Many of the guests gathered under an enormous tent where longtime WSU senior agronomist Steve Lyon and I teamed up to tell about the various varieties and discuss the challenges and benefits of heritage grain production. Several once prominent early American grains like Virginia White and Red May also made their way to the Pacific Northwest by the late 1800s, and seeing bountiful stands again wave in the seaside breeze presents scenes worthy of a painting.

Three (Colonial) Musketeers

Three (Colonial) Musketeers

Early American Mediterranean Red Wheat Test Plot

Early American Mediterranean Red Wheat Test Plot

One of the winter wheats planted last fall, Mediterranean Red, yielded terrifically and represents a remarkable chapter in the history of American agriculture. Most folks are familiar with the story of Hessian troops from Germany being used as mercenaries to fight for the British during the Revolutionary War. Many agricultural historians believe that these soldiers brought more with them to the Colonies that love of schnapps and sauerkraut. It seems that a tiny pernicious pest that came to be known as the Hessian fly likely arrived with the hay and grain brought over to provision the soldiers livestock. This insect wrought enormous havoc on cereal grains that had long been raised in North America, and local news and correspondence of George Washington and other farmers from the era is full of news about the calamity that ensured which threatened the food supply. Fortunately for the new nation, enterprising “farmer improvers” introduced Mediterranean Red which seemed to have a natural resistance to infestation. Scientists today study the remarkable genetic diversity of landrace grains that developed in locales throughout the world for millennia and continue to exhibit valued traits for hardiness, yield, and flavor.

Bridget Baker,  Olympic Gold  (oil on canvas, wheat field near Sequim), Palouse Heritage Collection

Bridget Baker, Olympic Gold (oil on canvas, wheat field near Sequim), Palouse Heritage Collection

From Colonial America To El Camino Real — The Great American Heritage Grains Adventure, April 2017 (Part 2)

This blog is a continuation of a series on my (Richard's) trip across the country visiting important sites related to heritage and landrace grain studies. View the other posts in the series here.

Hillwood Estate Museum, Ann McClellan, Interpreter

We’re big breakfast cereal lovers at the Scheuerman household! I still enjoy a good bowl of Post Grape Nuts or Toasties Corn Flakes, though I wish they would cut down on the sugar. I had some vague memory of the Post family’s association with Post cereals. C. W. Post was a man of humble origins and a passion for healthy living who built the Postum Cereal Company into a substantial empire. After he passed away in 1914, his only child and heir, Marjorie Meriwether Post, took over the family enterprise and transformed it into the General Foods Corporation and a host of other related concerns. In the 1930s Marjorie lived in Moscow as the wife of the U. S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union, Joseph Davies. She became fascinated by Slavic culture and began collecting treasures from Russia’s Imperial Age as many tsarist objects and works of art were sold at auction by the Soviet government in order to obtain hard currency. Ms. Post had special interest in Catherine the Great and was among the few who could afford the finest pieces which began the vast collection at her Hillwood estate west of Washington, D. C. She arranged to have the mansion and its treasures donated to the nation upon her death in the 1970s.

Russian Empress Catherine the Great (1729-1796) commissioned a breathtaking project to transform a vast area near the summer palace at Tsarskoe Selo (Pavlovsk), the “Tsar’s Village” west of St. Petersburg, into an allegorical landscape shaped by her conception of this Russian rural idyll. She found in Orthodox priest and agronomist Andrei Samborsky (1732-1815) a teacher with the proper background to tutor her grandsons and a small circle of privileged classmates like Prince Alexander Golitsyn. After graduating from the Kiev Academy in 1765, Samborsky had studied agriculture in England and served as chaplain at the Russian Embassy in London, married an Englishwoman, and returned to Russia to begin tutoring the Russian dukes in religion and natural science in 1782.

Buch Chalice with Gold Wheat Stem; presented by Catherine the Great to Nevsky Cathedral, 1791

Buch Chalice with Gold Wheat Stem; presented by Catherine the Great to Nevsky Cathedral, 1791

Hillwood’s Imperial Palace Service and Furnishings from Pushkin, Russia

Hillwood’s Imperial Palace Service and Furnishings from Pushkin, Russia

With the Empress’s support, Samborsky formulated plans for an Imperial Farm and School of Practical Agriculture on a thousand acres adjacent to Tsarskoe Selo which became an important state institution devoted to the improvement of crop and livestock production and farm management. An engraving from the time shows Samborsky plowing with an improved English implement as his distinguished Order of St. Vladimir medal hangs from a nearby tree. Open land in the vicinity was sown to wheat, rye, pasture grass, and other crops while workers labored nearby in the 1780s on Pavlovsk, the splendid summer palace of Catherine’s son, Paul I, and from 1792 to 1796 on his son’s Neoclassical residence, the Alexander Palace. The first structure built at Pavlovsk was the open air Temple to Ceres (later Catherine’s Concert Hall, 1780) by the empress’s favored architect Charles Cameron (1745-1812), a colonnaded Doric rotunda that originally contained a statue of Catherine as Ceres and painted panel An Offering to Ceres.

The Imperial Farm originally constructed from 1828 to 1830 featured buildings of Tudor Gothic country style designed by Scottish architect Adam Menelaws (c. 1750-1831) with a single story Cottage Palace built nearby as an izba containing rooms for visiting members of the imperial family. Outbuildings included a stone barn, stables, granary, and dairy, and a kitchen redesigned in 1841 to serve as a Grand Ducal School. The cottage was expanded to three floors in 1859 with the addition of bedrooms, and dining and drawing rooms to become the ocher-colored Farm Palace which Alexander II (1818-1881) used as the family’s preferred summer residence for the rest his life. When time permitted, Alexander especially enjoyed his Blue Study which displayed favored paintings of rural scenes and fine bindings, and where he signed the Emancipation of the Serfs decree in 1861.


Mt. Vernon National Historic Site

“I hope, some day or another, we shall become a storehouse and granary for the world.”  --George Washington, letter to Marquis de Lafayette, June 19, 1788

The great Business of the Continent is Agriculture.” --Benjamin Franklin, “The Internal State of America,” c. 1790

“I am never satiated with rambling through the fields and farms, examining culture and cultivators, with a degree of curiosity which makes some take me to be a fool, and others to be much wiser than I am.” --Thomas Jefferson to Marquis de Lafayette, April 11, 1787


I had day of splendid Virginia sunshine for the short drive from Washington, D. C., down to Washington’s Mt. Vernon estate overlooking the Potomac River where I made arrangements to visit the park’s living history farm and the nation’s most recently presidential library—the spectacular Smith Library for the Study of George Washington. Prior to leading freedom’s cause in the Revolutionary War, Washington first leased Mt. Vernon after the death of his half-brother, Lawrence, in 1754, and obtained full title in 1761 upon his sister-in-law’s death. Washington significantly expanded his holdings to 8,000 acres through acquisitions of Mansion Farm, Ferry Farm, Dogue Run Farm, Muddy Hole Farm, and River Farm. He began experimenting with various kinds of crop varieties in the late 1780s in order to move from tobacco to grain production in order to eliminate reliance on slave labor and in to improve the land’s fertility. My very helpful host was Lisa Pregent, who manages Mt. Vernon’s Living History Farm, where our Palouse Heritage Scots Bere barley will once again be growing after an absence of over two hundred years!

Mt. Vernon National Historic Site and Living History Farm, Lisa Pregent, Farm Manager, holding Palouse Heritage Scots Bere Barley Seed

Mt. Vernon National Historic Site and Living History Farm, Lisa Pregent, Farm Manager, holding Palouse Heritage Scots Bere Barley Seed

; and George Washington’s Restored Octagonal Threshing Barn

; and George Washington’s Restored Octagonal Threshing Barn

I continued down the winding road about five miles through the sparsely populated countryside to the recently rebuilt George Washington Gristmill and Distillery. (Someday soon they’d also like to reconstruct his farmhouse.) I arrived right at 5 PM closing time and the place was about empty, so thought my chances of any kind of guided tour were slim. But I was pleased when Head Miller Cory Welshans emerged along the lane leading to the mill with an inviting smile that seemed to say, “I’ll spare time for anybody with information about George Washington’s original grain culture.” And indeed he did show me around the grounds and invited me to return on my trip back from Williamsburg to meet Historic Trades Manager Sam Murphy.

Cory Welshans, Head Miller

Cory Welshans, Head Miller

Sam Murphy, Historic Trades Manager

Sam Murphy, Historic Trades Manager

In no tribute to my time management skills, I did return but this time a few minutes after closing hours though Sam and the milling team could not have been more accommodating to my interests. I got a grand tour of all three stories of the operating mill and found Sam, like Cory, to be a storehouse of knowledge and very interested the old White Virginia May wheat for milling and Scots Bere barley for both milling and brewing.

Mt. Vernon National Historic Site Gristmill and Distillery

Mt. Vernon National Historic Site Gristmill and Distillery


Sam provided some valued insights into Washington’s agricultural know-how and business savvy:

"President Washington did many things as a political and military leader, but here we really emphasize George Washington the agricultural entrepreneur. He led the transition from tobacco to grain culture in this region and built the two-story octagonal threshing barn based on a European design that reduced his loss to soil and sky by traditional methods from 20% to less than 10%. He also experimented with new grains from Europe and Asia, and installed the first Oliver Evans stone milling and silk-sifting equipment in the country. The reconstruction here is the only one of its kind presently operating.

"Washington developed a very lucrative milling business by vertically integrating his operations. He raised high quality milling grains for that time and installed sophisticated silk-sieve sifting equipment to separate the flour into three products—superfine white flour for the best bread and pastry flour, middlings with the bran and endosperm, and “ship stuff” for making hardtack or sea biscuit. He traded considerable grain to Caribbean markets for rum which he sold here in the Colonies, and also used those profits to import goods from China. So he was into global trade and vertical business integration long before those terms became fashionable."

Thanks again, Lisa, Corey, and Sam, and I can’t wait to see these Early American grains once again flourishing where they did in the time of our Founding Farmers!


Williamsburg, Virginia

I continued to the southeast on my rental car expedition for some 170 miles via Richmond to Colonial Williamsburg, America’s famed and meticulously restored 18th century community with generous support from the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. family. I was invited to meet with Ed Schultz and Wayne Randolf who have managed Great Hopes Plantation there and who have been wanting to restore the period’s authentic grain culture to the farm. I found them to be very gracious hosts and incredibly knowledgeable regarding Early American agricultural history. Various Williamsburg museums and libraries also contained works relevant to my “Hallowed Harvests” study.

Great Hopes Plantation Rye Field, Ed Schultz, Journeyman Farmer

Great Hopes Plantation Rye Field, Ed Schultz, Journeyman Farmer

William Prentis Store Field

William Prentis Store Field

What’s more, I hadn’t dined at the King’s Arms Tavern since first visiting Williamsburg with my wife, Lois, our parents, and my sister Debbie in the 1970s. I was pleased to find the same colonial era wines, savory pot pies, and desserts on the menu that we found back then. Today, however, some craft ales said to be based on old recipes had been added to the mix.

King’s Arms Tavern Marquis, Colonial Williamsburg

King’s Arms Tavern Marquis, Colonial Williamsburg

But I really knew I was where I was supposed to be after checking in late at night to the Quarterpath Inn and finding a framed print of this work by the French artist Jean Millet that I had been writing about in “Hallowed Harvests” hanging above my bed. Below it are some lines I composed about its significance.

Jean Millet,  Harvesters Resting  (1854)

Jean Millet, Harvesters Resting (1854)

Millet sought to paint “pictures that mattered” and the work he considered his masterpiece, Harvesters Resting—Ruth and Boaz (1857), earned the artist his first medal and is among very few paintings he explicitly based on a biblical theme. The canvas bathes Millet’s aesthetic mission in a spiritually charged golden pink light that merges appreciation of nature with faith, while the complex composition reflects associations with precedents like Breughel’s The Harvesters. In this monumental idyll, Millet reinterprets biblical Ruth and Boaz with contemporary relevance in clothing and setting to illustrate the mutual respect born of her courage and his benevolence. A jarring disparity is expressed between rustic peasant piety and privation.

Painting from a carefully moderated palette of soft tones, Millet clothes Ruth in blue, the symbolic color of purity typically seen in Renaissance portrayals of Mary, the mother of Jesus. The artist almost certainly intended this in accordance with Boaz’s proclamation that Ruth be known as a woman of excellence. Boaz presents her to his laborers, most of whom recline and eat their fill from a communal dish while Ruth clings to her grain as if she were protecting a child. She is vulnerable, excluded, and poor—like those who exist on the margins of society in any age. Yet a man of means shows uncommon compassion and chooses her to be a member of his household and offers promise of a new life.

The pithy sayings and light-hearted verse that made Benjamin Franklin’s Almanack a best-seller in Colonial and Early America reflects his creed regarding liberty of persons as a “key freedom” so Americans could own property and enjoy the fruits of their labor in the philosophic tradition of John Locke and John Milton. But in Franklin’s views, such freedom should have reasonable limits since unrestrained personal liberty could transform into licentiousness that threatened the public good through radically unequal distribution of wealth. While touring Scotland and Ireland in 1771, diplomat Franklin had seen firsthand the widespread abject poverty of the countryside which he attributed to absentee landlords and exploitive farming practices. Franklin proposed an amendment to the Pennsylvania constitution of 1776 to limit the large concentrations of farmland and other property which he believed would be “destructive to the Common Happiness of Mankind.”

Keep Within the Compass    Print   (Carrington & Bowles, 1784)

Keep Within the Compass Print (Carrington & Bowles, 1784)

Agrarian toil was likewise associated with moral wellbeing in Early America. The popular Keep the Compass allegorical broadsides, printed in England with separate versions for young men and women, depicted the benefits of proper behavior and hard work. Colorful scenes around a draftsman’s compass show the perils of vice beyond the instrument, while a harvest scene and church steeple inside represent keys to success symbolized by a sack of treasure. “KEEP WITHIN COMPASS AND YOU SHALL BE SURE,” the poster admonishes, “TO AVOID MANY TROUBLES OTHERS ENDURE.“

Stay tuned for the next installment of this blog series on Richard's "Great American Heritage Grains Adventure."

Richard's trip has been made possible by generous support from The Carolina Gold Foundation, Anson Mills and Glenn Roberts, Seattle Pacific University, the University of California-Riverside Department of History, and Palouse Heritage.

2016 Spokane Food and Farm Expo

Palouse Heritage had the opportunity to present at the 2016 Food & Farm Expo in Spokane. Our co-founders, Richard and Don Scheuerman, participated in the event along with several of our friends and partners who have joined us in the effort to raise awareness about the benefits of landrace grains. 

Richard taught one of the classes at the event, titled:

Heritage and Landrace Grains:  Restoring the soil, our health and flavor with heritage and Landrace Grains

You can watch his lecture below. The accompanying PowerPoint slide deck is available by clicking here.

Thanksgiving History and Wishes from Palouse Heritage

This week of gratitude for family, friends, and the earth’s bounty seems an appropriate time for us to commence The Palouse Commoner blog and newsletter. The ancient Greeks considered agriculture on of the “cooperative arts” (like medicine and education), because farming requires the “cooperation” of worker and land. Farming was not something to be done “to” to the earth, but “with” it, and in that spirit we are very grateful for the partnership of many others this past year at Palouse Colony Farm whose valued contributions have brought us to this point.

Traditional American Thanksgiving commemorations are heir to influences from early Pilgrim colonists and their Native American neighbors, as well as later European immigrant groups with their distinct harvest feast customs. Longer growing seasons in North America led to later commemorations of harvest festivals, and today’s popular county and state fairs in late summer and fall continue this tradition of agrarian spectacle, revelry, and fellowship.

President George Washington issued the first national Thanksgiving proclamation in 1789, the year of his inauguration. He designated the last Thursday in November “to be devoted by the people of these States to… the Beneficent Author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be.” This time was associated with the growing New England Thanksgiving tradition and observations of Christian Whitsuntide and the Jewish Feast of Ingathering (Sukkot, or Tabernacles). Some governors and denominations, however, objected to civil involvement in religious affairs so the day came to be celebrated according to regional preferences, or not at all.

One of the 19th century’s most tireless advocates for a true nationwide commemoration of Thanksgiving was longtime Ladies’ Magazine Boston editor Sarah Josepha Hale. Launching her crusade in 1827, Hale wrote hundreds of letters to public officials to further the cause, and in 1863 composed an influential editorial offering explicit association between Thanksgiving and Old Testament tradition: “Can we not then, following the appointment of Jehovah in the ‘Feast of Weeks,’ or Harvest Festival, establish our yearly Thanksgiving as a permanent American National Festival which shall be celebrated on the last Thursday in November in every State of the Union?”  Hale’s magazine provided a forum for many of era’s finest writers whose works, like these lines from Longfellow’s “Thanksgiving,” she featured to advance her abiding campaign:

“When first in ancient time, from Jubal’s tongue

The tuneful anthem filled the morning air,

To sacred hymnings and Elysian song

His music-breathing shell the minstrel woke.

Devotion breathed aloud from every chord:

The voice of praise was heard in every tone….”

Such language sounds rather excessive to our 21st century ears, but they seem to have helped turn the tide. Hale’s plea reached the White House, and on October 3, 1863 President Lincoln designated the last Thursday in November as an annual national observance of this special holiday. In honor of this rich historical tradition and Providence's blessings, we at Palouse Heritage would like to wish you and your family a very happy Thanksgiving!

Palouse Heritage Has Been Busy

Though Palouse Heritage launched recently, we have been busy researching and growing out our landrace grains for years. In the process, we have had unique opportunities to showcase our work. Here are some highlights:

Due to his deep expertise and growing public interest in the grains we are raising at Palouse Colony Farm, Richard regularly receives invitations to speak on landrace grains and agricultural history. This past year, he was asked to deliver a presentation at the annual Carolina Gold Rice Foundation's (CGRF) annual conference. The CGRF exists to advance sustainable restoration and preservation of Carolina Gold Rice and other heirloom grains. Its members work to raise public awareness of the importance of heirloom agriculture. They are affiliated with one of the leaders in organic heirloom grain milling, Anson Mills. 

The full title of Richard's presentation is Our Daily Bread:  Heritage Grains for Health, Culture & Occassional Profit. In this talk, he shares insights from his research into regional history and landrace grains, much of which laid the foundation for the launch of Palouse Heritage. You can watch it here:

In June 2015, the Pike Brewery Company launched its new Skagit Valley Alba, the first Washington State varietal beer and one made with 100% in-state ingredients. Also known as "Pike Locale," Palouse Colony Farm's Purple Egyptian Barley Malt is among the key ingredients. Seattle Eater captured the excitement over this novel brew. Here is an excerpt:

"Barley, the grain that, once malted, makes up the key ingredient in most beers, is largely produced as a commodity (think big production plants churning out a uniform product). Brewers may add ingredients such as hops for a more distinct flavor, but the barley is often the same, particularly in American beers. Until now. For its new Skagit Valley Alba, the first in a new Pike Locale series of like beers, Pike Brewing sources its malts from Skagit Valley and Whitman County Farms."

Full article:

"Pike Locale" Featuring Purple Egyptian Barley Raised on Palouse Colony Farm

"Pike Locale" Featuring Purple Egyptian Barley Raised on Palouse Colony Farm


The Rodale Institute researches and shares information on the best practices of organic agriculture. They featured our own Richard Scheuerman and our early heritage grains efforts in July 2014:

Another unique opportunity came in the spring of 2013. As reported by the Time Media Company:

"WSU/Mt. Vernon Research Center Director Stephen Jones, a prominent voice nationally for sustainable agriculture, contacted [Palouse Heritage's] Dr. Richard Scheuerman regarding a White House health education initiative. Jones had collaborated the previous year with Blue Hill Farm Restaurant chef and best-selling author Dan Barber (The Third Plate) in a project to include cereal grains in the White House Kitchen Garden. Michelle Obama’s influential “Let’s Move” initiative has promoted use of more whole grains and vegetables to improve the health of America’s youth and prevent childhood obesity. Jones, Scheuerman, and WSU/MV senior agronomist Steve Lyon had been working for three years with a group of Northwest farmers to reintroduce heirloom milling and malting grains to the region. Among the varieties selected for the White House project was one raised in Washington State as early as the 1890s and named the “Lincoln oat” in honor of the famed 16th U. S. president—himself raised on small farms in Kentucky and Indiana."

Palouse Heritage was honored to contribute towards this project.

First Lady Michelle Obama Welcoming Students to the White House Kitchen Garden AP Photo/Susan Walsh

First Lady Michelle Obama Welcoming Students to the White House Kitchen Garden
AP Photo/Susan Walsh

Steve Jones and Dan Barber inspecting White House Lincoln Oats Hannalore Suderman photo

Steve Jones and Dan Barber inspecting White House Lincoln Oats
Hannalore Suderman photo

Speaking of Blue Hill Farm Restaurant chef Dan Barber, he was elated to receive a sample of our Purple Egyptian barley, with which he baked these remarkably tasty loafs:

Delicious! We are grateful for these types of opportunities we've had and are excited about what the future holds for Palouse Heritage.

The Harvest Heritage Exhibition - The Palouse Heritage Collection

Objects & Art Commemorating Agrarian Traditions & Landrace Crops

Our years of research and passion for authentic, old world farming has led to us create a unique and remarkable collection of items celebrating agricultural history. When we travel to conferences and other events, we often bring some of these rare items for others to see and enjoy. To help share with a wider audience, we thought it appropriate to share a blog post listing all the treasures we have in this collection.

The Gleaners Tapestry (Belgium, c. 1950)

The Gleaners Tapestry (Belgium, c. 1950)

I. Early Modern European Engravings—The Book of Ruth Gleaning Motifs

(A) Gerard de Jode (1585); (B) G. Freman and (1672); (C) Mattias Scheits and François Halma (1710)

(D) T. Stothard, The Seasons (London, 1794); (E) B. Foster, The Farmer’s Boy (London, 1858)

II. Franklin Knight, ed., [George] Washington’s Agricultural Correspondence: Letters… to Arthur Young and John Sinclair (1847).   Morocco-bound leather with engravings and maps


III. 19th Century European Agrarian Realist Art Prints

(A) J. Breton, Harvest (1860); (B) G. Myasoyedev, Reapers (1887); (C) Van Gogh, Wheat Sheaves (1890)

IV. Early 20th Century American Periodical & McCormick Centennial (1831-1931) Color Lithographs

(A) P. Helck, Combine Harvester and Railroad (1930); (B) P. Lyford, McCormick-Deering Harvester-Thresher (1931), (C) N. C. Wyeth, The World’s First Reaper (1931), (D) E. Baker, Wheat Harvest (1935)


V. Agrarian Folk Art

(A) Painted wooden bowl in primitive Volga Khokhlama style (Henry & Anna Litzenberger, 1876); (B) G. V. Kurchatkina, “Novgorod Cathedral” & Straw Overlay Salyomki Box (Russia, 1991); (C) Fern Enos, Heart Wheat-weaving (Colfax, WA, c. 1980)


VI. Grain Mills and Baking Equipment

(A) Pine Kneading Trough & Cabinet-Work Table (Eastern Europe, c. 1900); (B) Iron Mortar & Pestle (c. 1870); (C) Hand Iron-Buhr Mill (c. 1880); (D) Iron Enterprise No. 10 Grain Mill (U. S., c. 1920); (E) Meadows Mill Kitchen Grain Mill

VI. Flour and Feed Milling Equipment

(A) Foos Horse-Powered Mill (Springfield, OH, c. 1900, from the Finley Ranch near Inchelium on the Colville Indian Reservation, WA); (B) Ensberg French Stone-Buhr Mill (c. 1890, Peterson, MN)


VII. Harvest Hand Tools, Winnowing Basket, and Fanning Mill

(A) Cradle Scythe; (B) Grain Rake; (C) Threshing Flail; (D) Scoop Shovel (c. 1875), (E) Puget Sound Salish Winnowing Basket (c. 1900); (F) Pacific Fanning Mill (Kenosha, WI, c. 1910; from a farm near Schrag, WA)

VII. Commercial Container Art

(A) Champoeg Flour Mills “Golden Sheaf” Flour Sack (c. 1890); (B) Washburn-Crosby Flour Barrel (c. 1895); (C) Hungarian Linen Grain Sack (c. 1910);  (D) Sperry Flour Company “Harina” Four Sack (c. 1940)


IX. Liberty Hyde Bailey Published Works, Agrarian History, and the “New Agrarianism”

(A) L. H. Bailey, The Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, (4 Volumes, 1908); (B) L. H. Bailey, The Holy Earth (1915); (C) Liberty Hyde Bailey: Essential Agrarian & Environmental Writings (2008), What Are People For? Essays by Wendell Berry (1990)


X. Portfolios

(A) Gustavus Sohon and John Mix Stanley color lithographs, in I. I. Stevens, Narrative and Final Report of Explorations for a Route for a Pacific Railroad (Washington, D.C., 1860); (B) Eugéne Graff color lithographs, in H. Vilmorin, Les Meilleurs Blés [The Best Wheats] (Paris, 1880); (C)The Country Gentleman, Saturday Evening Post, Collier’s, and other 19th and 20th century periodical lithographs